T-14 “Armata” on May 9th parade 2015.
Such a tank, as the T-14 “Armata” appears once in a hundred years
History of weapons – one of the most fascinating chapters in world history. And it’s not just the abundance of dramatic collisions associated with the birth of new for its time weapons systems. History teaches us that often rise and fall of entire civilizations are not associated with other than the emergence of new chariots, bows, swords and armor. The fact remains that we still live in a world where many, if not all, decides to military force as the highest expression of the power of the state. Err in this respect is very dangerous. No wonder the country that considers itself the most free, and have the most advanced armed forces. Especially interesting to watch how the story is going on before our eyes: a speech about the latest Russian tank T-14 “Armata”, made in the workshops of Uralvagonzavod, one of the partners of VTB Bank. Among the contemporaries of the T-14 has no analogues. But what it will take place among the most outstanding military vehicles of the past? Here are the main protagonists of this story.
Mark I. The first in the family
Mark I – the first tank, proven in combat. It happened September 15, 1916 at the Battle of the Somme in France. Of the 49 tanks to the front lines have reached only 35, five more are stuck in a swamp, and nine were broken in the course of the attack. However, 18 of the remaining iron fighters have advanced deep into the German defense for five kilometers, with the loss of the attackers were in 20 times less than the usual occurrence.
Value Mark I was not even in the fact that he first came into the bout. His views and practical possibilities it has made such a strong impression on the military experts of all countries, the future of armored troops who have little doubt. Actually, from this model and gave the name of the new weapon. For the purposes of secrecy British counterintelligence spread the rumor that the Russian Party in Britain has ordered tanks (in English – tank). On the sides of the iron monsters even written in Cyrillic “Caution. Petrograd. “Interestingly, in the Russian novelty was first named in a literal translation – the tub. It remains to be glad that in this case the name did not stick.
Renault FT-17. Classics of the genre
Designers are not immediately able to find the optimal layout for the new weapon. The first British tank Mark I was a diamond that allows to overcome serious obstacles, but forced armament placed in the side sponsons. The first German tank A7V resembled a rail car on the tracks. The Italians made a double-decked ship overland Fiat 2000 with a crew of 10 people. The first Russian project – “Tsar Tank” Lebedenco – generally like a giant gun carriage for the cannon. Only in 1917, the French designers have to guess the appearance of the combat vehicle. Renault FT-17 was the first tank with a cannon in the turret, which rotates 360 degrees, with the office in front, fighting compartment in the center and rear engine. This arrangement has become a classic. FT-17 was so successful that remained in service with many countries before the Second World War. A copy of the tank, founded in 1920 at the Sormovo factory in Nizhny Novgorod under the name “Freedom Fighter Comrade. Lenin “, was the ancestor of the domestic armored forces.
M1928. Gift from America
For a long time one of the major problems of tanks remained low speed over rough terrain. Combat vehicles of the 1920s crawled instead of flying into battle. The situation changed after the American constructor John Christie invented the original scheme independent suspension. It allowed the tank to move even without tracks – on rubberized rollers. Another feature designs Christi – aspiration have frontal armor plates at an angle to the vertical, thereby increasing the probability of ricochet projectiles. All these advantages of the fastest in the world rated by Soviet specialists. Draft Christie tank was purchased by the Soviet Union in 1930, and based on it created a series of BT (fast tanks) – BT-2 BT-5 and BT-7. The last of them in 1939, equipped with a diesel engine aircraft of type B-2, which was subsequently installed on all Soviet medium and heavy Tacna up to T-62. Thus, in the USSR, to combine all the elements that helped to create the legendary T-34.
T-34. Tank Victory
With the advantage of maneuverability and terrain, the T-34 is not superior to his contemporaries thick armor, rate of fire, accuracy and power weapons. It is not the most formidable fighting machine of World War II. Some experts believe that as the best fighter in the middleweight champion of those years is not equal to the German T-V «Panther”, although weak board book makes it unsuitable for offensive operations. From the combination of combat skills, which include, for example, large-scale production manufacturability and maintainability in the field, with the “Thirty” no one could match. No wonder panicked at the end of 1941, German pantsergeneraly German designers were asked to create a no contender T-34, as “exactly the same tank.” This was done, however, the German copy of Russian tanks did not go into production for fear that the troops will confuse their tanks with strangers. The T-34 was found the optimal combination of qualities specific to the conditions of the war in Europe from the Arctic to the Caucasus, and with the capacity of Soviet industry in those years.
In 1944, the Soviet Union was created much more advanced T-44, but the country’s leaders rightly believe that stopping the mass production of the main tank during the war impossible. The German school of tank building went (and still is) the other way, aiming to achieve a qualitative superiority. Until now, many people believe that if instead of “Tigers”, “Panther”, “royal tigers” and the 189-ton “Mouse” Germans continued to improve “the nameless” T-IV, the defeat to Germany would have been more difficult. For comparison, the most powerful US industry released only 49,234 medium tank M4 “Sherman”, Germany produced about 8686 T-IV, 5976 T-V «Panther” 1354 T heavy-VI «Tiger” and two … “Mouse.” A T-34 tank was the largest in history, in different versions were released about 84,070 units.His last modification of the T-34-85 still stands in service of some countries. And even in Russia, it was officially removed from service only in 1993.
T-44. Unknown soldier
This tank, created in 1944, has absorbed a lot of innovations which for decades determined the superiority of the Soviet school of tank building. Largely because of these secrets of the T-44 has not been on the field of battle: it was impossible to prevent even the slightest chance that the sample falls into the hands of the enemy. While fighting qualities of the tank that would not be equal.
Replacing bulky Christie suspension on torsion make way for a transverse engine, which led to a number of significant changes. Other placement of water and oil pumps possible to reduce the height of the housing. Since then, Soviet tanks received his famous squat profile. Reducing the size of the engine compartment allowed the tower to shift back. It is located above the center of gravity of the tank, which improved accuracy on the move, and most importantly – allowed to establish a long and powerful instrument of the caliber of 100 mm. Reducing the load on the front rollers make it possible to increase the thickness of the frontal armor up to 120 mm. Thus, we managed to improve the armor protection at half the weight of the total growth of 12%. T-44 did not have time to replace the T-34 as the main tank of the armed forces, but its virtues later found application in T-54 and its modifications for nuclear war – the T-55.
T-55. Active position
It is the modification of the T-55AD in 1983 for the first time in the world there was a system of active protection “Drozd”. The first mesh screens to deal with cumulative “Panzerfaust” in the armor of Soviet tanks are welded at the end of the Second World War. Then it began to be used as a dynamic defense explosives briquettes on top of the main armor. Counter explosion threw the metal plates, which destroyed the shell. Further development of this kind of self-defense was a system of active defense.”Drozd” consisted of radar that captured approximation striking tools and a few mortars, which destroyed the threat on the approach, creating on its way shrapnel field. Currently, the active protection system installed only on an Israeli tank “Merkava”. Now it will appear on the T-14 “Armata”.
T-62. Conceptual machine
T-62 has put an end to the division of tanks for medium and heavy, becoming the founder of the concept of main battle tank. This concept is now accepted worldwide. The only difference is that Western designers its main battle tanks to create, in effect, on the basis of hard choices. T-62 weighs only 37 tons.Mass of the German “Leopard 2” is 62 tons. A US “Abrams” because of its size can not be transported by rail: only by boat or plane – one tank for flight.
Soviet designers have managed to create a fighting machine with weight and maneuverable medium tank, but with heavy armor and weaponry. The latter was largely achieved due to the fact that the T-62 has become the world’s first tank with smoothbore gun caliber 115 mm. In addition to increasing the speed of the projectile, it allows you to shoot missiles. Again, only the Soviet designers managed to bring to mind a tank rocket 9K112-1 “Cobra”, which allowed to hit enemy armored vehicles at a distance of four kilometers. Since then, the right of “long arm” in the anti-dueling owned domestic tanks. Foreign designers to improve their systems and could not abandon them. And in the arsenal of T-14 “Armata” will rocket with a range of more than six kilometers. Well, the world’s first tank with rocket and cannon armament began in 1976, T-64B.
T-64. Epochal tank
T-64, put into service in 1968, was a landmark project for the domestic tank building. He became the first in the world with a combined tank (multilayer) armor. This fact, as well as a new type of transmission and extremely dense (alas, to the detriment of the comfort of the crew) made it possible to increase the layout of the book is two-fold compared with the T-62 at the same mass. T-64 has become the world’s first tank with automatic loader of the third generation (with a choice of the type of ammunition and without rigid connection of the conveyor with a gun), which allowed to reduce the crew to three people. In the West, by the way, still think that in the first minutes of the fight hand-charging provides a great rate, but then because of fatigue reduced rate of fire. Ostensibly this is why neither the US, “Abrams” or in German “Leopard” no such device. However, it is the presence of the automatic loader is the first step towards creating an uninhabited tower T-14 “Armata”. That decision, in turn, allowed the crew to put bronekapsuly that protects people, not only from the damaging of the enemy, but also on its own detonation of ammunition stored in a separate compartment.
T-72. Heir of Fame
T-72, adopted by the Soviet Army in 1973, nothing revolutionary not differ. Moreover, instead of the original boxer diesel 5TD, which appeared on the T-64, it was established modification of the same legendary B-2, a move to win even the T-34. That is why, incidentally, detractors called T-72 72th modification of the T-34. Of course, it is not.
T-72 has absorbed all the achievements of the Soviet school of design. This tank was well in 1980 in a battle with equal opponents of western production in the Iran-Iraq war and the conflict of Israel and Syria.And in the 1990s, according to informed sources, the collision with the T-72 face to face, without the support of artillery and aviation, American “Abrams” always acted in the same way: include reverse and retreated, taking care not to expose the board.
Top features of the T-72 – reliability, ruggedness in harsh climatic conditions, agility and continuity, as well as an unbeatable value for money and still allow us to consider this as the best tank in the world in the aggregate capacity. Market – the best expert. No wonder the T-90 – a modern modification of the T-72 – became the best selling in the world’s main battle tank. In 2008 Indian Defense Minister D. Singh called the T-90 “after the second nuclear deterrent” in the confrontation with Pakistan.
T-80. Flaming Heart
T-80 – the world’s first tank with a gas turbine engine (GTE). So far, only two countries in the world produce battle tanks with GTE. This United States (“Abrams’) and the Soviet Union (T-80). Benefits of GTD – more power with less weight, two to three times longer service life, twice less noise, faster start-up in cold weather, the ability to run on any fuel. But also diesel engines have their trump card: half the fuel consumption, the ability to exhaust the water in crossing water obstacles, reliability in dusty conditions, the ability to start with a “pusher” lower thermal signature, the ability to repair in the field and 10 times less cost. Bearing in mind the traditional values of the domestic tank building, is it any wonder that the latest T-14 “Armata” is good old diesel.
T-14 “Armata”. Tank of the XXI century
T-14 “Armata” – the world’s first tank with an uninhabited tower bronekapsuly for the crew and a modular design that allows to place the engine compartment in the rear and in the front of the chassis, so that a single platform can create dozens of military vehicles – from BMP to heavy anti-aircraft complex. Compare this revolution in tank only with the advent of the classical scheme of Renault FT-17. Such events occur once in a hundred years. This arrangement will be a reference point for the entire world tank industry for decades to come.
VTB Bank has long worked with the company “Uralvagonzavod”, producing including the T-14 “Armata”.To date, the cooperation agreement between VTB and “Uralvagonzavod” signed for the period until 2018.